Winds Favorable for Upwellings near the Southern Coast of Crimea
I. G. Shokurova1, ✉, T. V. Plastun1, T. E. Kasianenko1, R. R. Stanichnaya1, S. B. Krasheninnikova2, Yu. V. Simonova1
1 Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS, Sevastopol, Russian Federation
2 A. O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, Russian Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Russian Federation
✉ e-mail: email@example.com
Purpose. The study is purposed at analyzing frequency, speed and duration of the alongshore winds inducing the Ekman upwelling near the Southern Coast of Crimea.
Methods and Results. The 6-hour data on the wind speed components at the 10 m height derived from the ERA5 atmospheric reanalysis for 1979–2021, as well as the data of temperature monitoring performed at the Black Sea hydrophysical sub-satellite polygon of Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, are used. Frequency and speed of the winds (namely, the southwestern, western and northwestern ones) favorable for development of upwelling near the Southern Coast of Crimea are considered. The multi-year data based calculations show that the seasonal variability in frequency of each of these winds is of an individual character, whereas their average speeds change the same decreasing from winter to summer. In summer, frequency of the western and northwestern winds increases, and that of the southwestern ones – decreases. The total frequency of favorable winds is the highest in June (maximum values), July, January and December. The lowest frequency values occur in August and October. The interannual changes in speed and frequency of the westerly directions winds result in changes in the upwelling numbers and durations. A significant positive relationship was obtained between the mean speed and frequency of these winds in June and the number of upwellings recorded by a water temperature decrease. The correlation coefficients were 0.74 and 0.68, respectively.
Conclusions. The wind conditions for arising of upwelling near the Southern Coast of Crimea are observed in all the months of a year, but the most favorable ones – in June, July, December and January due to the high frequency of westerly winds. High wind speed is also a significant factor for the development of upwelling.
upwelling, wind direction, wind frequency, seawater temperature, seasonal variability, interannual variability, Southern Coast of Crimea, Black Sea
The study was carried out within the framework of the state assignments of Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS on themes FNNN-2021-0002, FNNN-2021-0003, FNNN- 2021-0005 and FRC IBSS, RAS 0556-2021-0003 (No. 121041400077-1).
Original russian text
Original Russian Text © The Authors, 2023, published in MORSKOY GIDROFIZICHESKIY ZHURNAL, Vol. 39, Iss. 4 (2023)
Shokurova, I.G., Plastun, T.V., Kasianenko, T.E., Stanichnaya, R.R., Krasheninnikova, S.B. and Simonova, Yu.V., 2023. Winds Favorable for Upwellings near the Southern Coast of Crimea. Physical Oceanography, 30(4), pp. 398-409.
- Sur, H.İ., Özsoy, E. and Ünlüata, Ü., 1994. Boundary Current Instabilities, Upwelling, Shelf Mixing and Eutrophication Processes in the Black Sea. Progress in Oceanography, 33(4), pp. 249-302. doi:10.1016/0079-6611(94)90020-5
- Pérez, F.F., Padín, X.A., Pazos, Y., Gilcoto, M., Cabanas, M., Pardo, P.C., Doval, M.D. and Farina‐Busto, L., 2010. Plankton Response to Weakening of the Iberian Coastal Upwelling. Global Change Biology, 16(4), pp. 1258-1267. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02125.x
- Chavez, F.P. and Messié, M., 2009. A Comparison of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems. Progress in Oceanography, 83(1-4), pp. 80-96. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2009.07.032
- Lovenkova, E.A. and Polonskii, A.B., 2005. Climatic Characteristics of Upwelling near the Crimean Coast and Their Variability. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, (5), pp. 31-37.
- Tuzhilkin, V.S. and Novikov, A.A., 2011. Thermal Effects of Upwelling in the Russian Part of the Black Sea Coastal Zone. Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria 5, Geografia, (6), pp. 43-53 (in Russian).
- Tolstosheev, A.P., Motyzhev, S.V. and Lunev, E.G., 2020. Results of Long-Term Monitoring of the Shelf Water Vertical Thermal Struture at the Black Sea Hydrophysical Polygon of RAS. Physical Oceanography, 27(1), pp. 69-80. doi:10.22449/1573-160X-2020-1-69-80
- Stanichnaya, R.R. and Stanichny, S.V., 2021. Black Sea Upwellings. Sovremennye Problemy Distantsionnogo Zondirovaniya Zemli iz Kosmosa, 18(4), pp. 195-207. doi:10.21046/2070- 7401-2021-18-4-195-207 (in Russian).
- Ivanov, V.A. and Mikhailova, E.N., 2008. [Upwelling in the Black Sea]. Sevastopol, 92 p. (in Russian).
- Mikhailova, E.N., Muzyleva, M.A. and Polonsky, A.B., 2009. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Parameters of Upwelling in the Northwestern Black Sea and near Crimea Coast in 2005–2008. In: MHI, 2009. Ekologicheskaya Bezopasnost' Pribrezhnoy i Shel'fovoy Zon i Kompleksnoe Ispol'zovanie Resursov Shel'fa [Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Zones and Comprehensive Use of Shelf Resources]. Sevastopol: MHI. Iss. 20, pp. 160-170 (in Russian).
- Polonskii, A.B. and Muzyleva, M.A., 2016. Modern Spatial-Temporal Variability of Upwelling in the North-Western Black Sea and off the Crimea Coast. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya Geograficheskaya, (4), pp. 96-108. doi:10.15356/0373-2444-2016-4-96-108 (in Russian).
- Kuklin, A.K., Kuklina, N.Ya. and Shabalina, O.A., 2014. [Sea Water Temperature near the Oceanographic Platform in Katsiveli]. In: MHI, 2014. Ekologicheskaya Bezopasnost' Pribrezhnoy i Shel'fovoy Zon i Kompleksnoe Ispol'zovanie Resursov Shel'fa [Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Zones and Comprehensive Use of Shelf Resources]. Sevastopol: MHI. Iss. 28, pp. 186-194 (in Russian).
- Ivanov, V.A. and Belokopytov, V.N., 2013. Oceanography of the Black Sea. Sevastopol: ECOSI-Gidrofizika, 210 p.
- Silvestrova, K.P., Zatsepin, A.G. and Myslenkov, S.A., 2017. Coastal Upwelling in the Gelendzhik Area of the Black Sea: Effect of Wind and Dynamics. Oceanology, 57(4), pp. 469-477. doi:10.1134/S0001437017040178
- Ocherednik, V.V., Zatsepin, A.G., Kuklev, S.B., Baranov, V.I., and Mashura, V.V., 2020. Examples of Approaches to Studying the Temperature Variability of Black Sea Shelf Waters with a Cluster of Temperature Sensor Chains. Oceanology, 60(2), pp. 149-160. doi:10.1134/S000143702001018X
- Borovskaja, R.V., Lomakin, P.D., Panov, B.N. and Spiridonova, Е.О., 2008. Structure and Interannual Variability of Characteristics of Inshore Black Sea Upwelling on Basis of Satellite Monitoring Data. Issledovanie Zemli iz Kosmosa, (2), pp. 26-36 (in Russian).
- Kubryakov, A.A., Belokopytov, V.N., Zatsepin, A.G., Stanichny, S.V. and Piotukh, V.B., 2019. The Black Sea Mixed Layer Depth Variability and Its Relation to the Basin Dynamics and Atmospheric Forcing. Physical Oceanography, 26(5), pp. 397-413. doi:10.22449/1573- 160X-2019-5-397-413
- Gawarkiewicz, G., Korotaev, G., Stanichny, S., Repetin, L. and Soloviev, D., 1999. Synoptic Upwelling and Cross-Shelf Transport Processes along the Crimean Coast of the Black Sea. Continental Shelf Research, 19(8), pp. 977-1005. doi:10.1016/s0278-4343(99)00003-5
- Lehmann, A. and Myrberg, K., 2008. Upwelling in the Baltic Sea – A Review. Journal of Marine Systems, 74(Suppl.), pp. S3-S12. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.02.010
- Zatsepin, A.G., Silvestrova, K.P., Kuklev, S.B., Piotoukh, V.B. and Podymov, O.I., 2016. Observations of a Cycle of Intense Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling at the Research Site of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology in the Black Sea. Oceanology, 56(2), рр. 188-199. doi:10.1134/S0001437016020211
- Kämpf, J. and Chapman, P., 2016. The Functioning of Coastal Upwelling Systems. In: J. Kämpf and P. Chapman, 2016. Upwelling Systems of the World. Cham: Springer, pp. 31- 65. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42524-5_2
- Ferreira, S., Sousa, M., Picado, A., Vaz, N. and Dias, J.M., 2022. New Insights about Upwelling Trends off the Portuguese Coast: An ERA5 Dataset Analysis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 10(12), 1849. doi:10.3390/jmse10121849
- Odic, R., Bensoussan, N., Pinazo, C., Taupier-Letage, I. and Rossi, V., 2022. Sporadic Wind- Driven Upwelling/Downwelling and Associated Cooling/Warming along Northwestern Mediterranean Coastlines. Continental Shelf Research, 250, 104843. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2022.104843
- Hersbach, H., Bell, B., Berrisford, P., Hirahara, S., Horányi, A., Muñoz‐Sabater, J., Nicolas, J., Peubey, C., Radu, R. [et al.], 2020. The ERA5 Global Reanalysis. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 146(730), pp. 1999-2049. doi:10.1002/qj.3803
- Zhuk, E., Khaliulin, A., Zodiatis, G., Nikolaidis, A. and Isaeva, E., 2016. Black Sea GIS Developed in MHI. In: SPIE, 2016. Proceedings of SPIE. Paphos, Cyprus. Volume 9688, 96881C. doi:10.1117/12.2241631
- Shokurov, M.V. and Shokurova, I.G., 2017. Wind Stress Curl over the Black Sea under Different Wind Regimes. Physical Oceanography, (6), pp. 12-23. doi:10.22449/1573-160X- 2017-6-12-23
- Trenberth, K.E. and Paolino Jr., D.A., 1980. The Northern Hemisphere Sea-Level Pressure Data Set: Trends, Errors and Discontinuities. Monthly Weather Review, 108(7), pp. 855-872. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1980)108<0855:TNHSLP>2 0.CO;2
- Shokurova, I.G., Kubryakov, A.A. and Shokurov, M.V., 2021. Influence of Long-Term Changes in the Large-Scale Sea Level Pressure Field on the Wind Regime and the Wind Stress Curl in the Black Sea. Physical Oceanography, 28(2), pp. 165-179. doi:10.22449/1573-160X- 2021-2-165-179